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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

146        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

or the page became a knight. He attended the lectures of a mem-
ber of the masters' gild, and after a number of years (perhaps four
or five) he became a student-teacher. Then after a further term
of years in this capacity, if he were studying in Paris or in any of
the other northern towns, he applied to the chancellor or to the
corresponding Church official for a licence to teacl>, and was
presented to the other masters by his own master as a candidate
for admission to their ranks. If he received licence and was ap-
proved by the masters, he himself became a master. In Bologna
and the south, the procedure was very much the same, except that
at first there was no need for the ecclesiastical licence. It was not
till Pope Honorius III in 1219 required all candidates in Bologna
to receive licence from the Archdeacon of that city after the
manner of Paris, that the Church's licence became a necessary
condition of mastership there also. As time went on, however,
the honour of mastership was sought even by those who had no
intention to devote themselves to teaching, and a distinction came
to be made between teachers and non-teachers (magistri regentes
and magistri non-regentes in Paris, magistri legentes and magistri
non-legentes in Bologna). Mastership thus came to signify
the successful completion of a special course of study, and it
became necessary to define the qualifications for it with greater
precision.

Here Bologna seems to have led the way. In the Middle Ages
a knowledge of law meant the knowledge of certain texts and the
recognized commentaries on them. The attendance on lectures
on the standard texts and some kind of examination on their
contents were therefore obvious requirements for a degree in law.
After devoting five years to study, the student in Civil Law might
apply to the rector for permission to lecture on a chapter of one
of the law books, and a year later on a whole book. After delivering
a course of lectures he became a Bachelor without any examination.
Two years later, at the completion of seven years' study, he was
entitled to apply for the Doctorate. Before examination he had
to appear before the rector, affirm on oath that he had fulfilled all
thfe statutory requirements, and swear obedience to him. Having
received the rector's permission to go forward, he was then pre-
sented for licence to the Archdeacon of Bologna by his own
Doctor or by another who gave testimony concerning his fitness.
Next came the private examination. The candidate came before